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So, by the beginning of the XX century there was a full-fledged basis for an industrial breakthrough in automotive engineering. Engine concepts were created, chassis designs were developed - after all, the previous ones were focused on horse or steam traction. As a matter of fact, cars were already being produced in different countries. Even the first automobile competitions were held as far back as 1894, but we are talking about sports and sports engines. But there was no mass production - real, not small-batch production.

As part of a special project with the G-Energy brand of motor oils we talk about the history of car engines. The first part is an excursion into the history of engine construction, we wrote about it last time. Today we continue our fascinating story.

From "toys" to the biggest industry

Cars with internal combustion engines wrested the right to exist and leadership from steam designs and the first electric cars - yes, not only them, but even hybrid units were already created. At first, it was far from obvious who would win the battle for the market. However, the internal combustion engine remained exotic - for especially advanced rich. Even externally, the cars of Daimler and Benz - consider them as the most famous, although there were already many other manufacturers - did not particularly resemble modern cars. Still, it was still some kind of wagons, carriages. It is believed that the first "automobile" car on a specially calculated and designed chassis with an elaborate layout appeared in 1900. It was the Mercedes of the same Daimler company, and it set the main features of this innovative vehicle for at least three or four decades.

As we have said, the lubricants used for steam and other machines were not suitable for the internal combustion engine. Petroleum-based "machine oil", which was used in the early years of automobile production, had to be changed quite often, literally after several hundred kilometers. The combustion of fuel led to heavy oxidation, there were heavy deposits and the oil quickly lost its detergency. While the car remained the province of wealthy enthusiasts, this was an unpleasant but forced rule of the game. Owners were either so enthusiastic about their "toy" that they didn't disdain to do such maintenance themselves, or could afford to hire a mechanic (and sometimes a mechanic-driver).

Everything changed with the appearance in the U.S. of the Ford T - the famous "Lizzie's Tin Man". And it's not about any breakthrough technical solutions. No, technically the Ford T was quite modest - with a 20-horsepower 2.9-liter engine, planetary transmission and primitive brakes, with a suspension even without shock absorbers (only springs). The thing is that it was originally intended for mass production. The car could be bought not only by rich people - it was available even for a worker who assembled it on assembly line. This means that it was necessary to give the owner as little trouble as possible and certainly not to make him change oil every couple of hundred miles. By the way, the Ford T was produced for two decades, and the total circulation of this model in the world exceeded not bad even for today's times 15 million copies. Other automakers were also striving for mass circulation. Lubricants were needed on an industrial scale, and they had to have not only well-thought-out and calculated, but also standardized characteristics. The more so that the lubrication systems at the time were not perfect: the Ford T was fed by gravity and sprayed with special scoops "at the point of use. Many other cars, even much more expensive ones, had the same "scheme". The oil pump had yet to take its permanent place in the engine design. The mass application of filters was still almost half a century away.

Each in its own way, but the rules were common

Of course, standardization issues were not only about lubricants - they were relevant for many automotive components. Have you ever wondered, for example, how with all the variety of cars, rims, tires all car wheels have almost the same nipple all over the world?

Special structures began to arise working on this topic. In 1905 in New York was formed Society of Automotive Engineers, which was engaged in patenting, legal support and standardization. SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) until today plays a very important role in the global automotive industry. By the way, it is interesting that almost the main initiators of SAE creation were not engineers or lawyers, but journalists who have wide information and understand the importance of ideas exchange. In particular, Horace Swetland, editor-in-chief of Automobile magazine, and his colleague Peter Heldt from the publication "The Horseless Age" played an important role in the formation of this structure.

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