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Industry is the most important, leading branch of the economy, which has a decisive influence on the level of development of the company's productive forces. Today, about 500 million people are employed in global industry, and industrial production has increased more than 50 times in recent decades.

The food industry is a group of industries producing food products in finished form or as semi-finished products.

The food industry is directly linked to agriculture, which is the main source of raw materials for industry. Food production directly affects the solution of the food problem of mankind. The food industry is present in all countries of the world, but varies greatly not only in terms of development, but also in specialization.

The range of branches of the food industry is quite wide: meat, dairy, sugar, canning, flour-grinding, fish, cheese-making, confectionery, etc.

Depending on the nature of the raw materials used, the industry can be divided into two groups:

production using unprocessed raw materials (fish, oil, cereals, canned food); industries using processed raw materials (pasta, confectionery, bakery).

Based on location factors, industries are divided into three groups:

  1. emphasis on raw materials (cans, sugar, fish, oil); 

  2. consumer-oriented: bakery, confectionery, pasta; 

  3. orientation both to raw materials and consumers (meat processing, flour-grinding industry).

Cities have a particularly large influence on the location of the food industry, since their population is the main consumer of meat, milk, eggs and bread.

The main type of food industry enterprises are enterprises that combine the integrated use of raw materials with the complete processing of waste. For example, an oil and fat plant produces vegetable oil, hard fat, mayonnaise, margarine, soap, detergents, drying oil, glycerin, etc. from waste.

Principles of placement of food industry enterprises.

The main principles of industrial placement include the following:

Maximum approximation of the industry to the sources of raw materials, energy and consumption. Specialization of individual economic regions in those sectors in which the natural and socio-economic conditions are most favorable for this, and their general development. Accounting for the international division of labor. Accounting for the defense capability of the state. Alignment of the economy of different regions on the vast territory of Russia, subjects of the federation. Placement, industrial enterprises according to market needs to reduce transportation costs. Accounting for the need to maximize the use of natural and labor resources, coverage of their demographic structure.

Features of the food industry

The food industry has characteristics that significantly affect the nature of their location. The most important of them are the following:

Seasonality of production of many types of raw materials. Physical intolerance to certain types of raw materials. Economic non-transferability of many types of raw materials. The multi-component composition of processed organic raw materials, which allows the production of other food and non-food products in addition to the main product. ubiquitous food consumption. Mass consumption of many foodstuffs. Physical and economic obstruction of some finished products. The need for constant and large-scale diversification. Production according to market needs. Features of concentration, specialization, cooperation and combination of production. A significant share of transport costs in the purchase price and the cost of food.What factors influence the development of the food industry.

The food industry plays an important role in the modern geography of the world. The entire food industry is divided into two main product groups:

  • use of raw materials (canned food, fish, etc.); 

  • processed raw materials (pasta, confectionery).

The food industry is closely related to agriculture, but also includes several areas (canning, milk, meat, fats and oils, pasta, confectionery, winemaking, fish, salt, sugar and some other food industries).

But what is the overall location factor for a company?

The factor of the location of the food industry is the driving force, the reason that will contribute to the development of the production of any products in this place.

First, such companies are found only in areas where there are always a significant number of consumers who want to buy groceries. Agree that in a village where there are only four houses, the manufacturer will not build a butcher's shop. Those. important factors are good demand and proximity to the consumer. The latter is largely true for companies producing perishable goods.

Another reason is the proximity of raw materials (fishing industry - the enterprise is located near the place of fishing; meat industry - a factory at the source of meat, etc.)

The third reason is the availability of labor resources. Food production is a rather painstaking work that requires a large number of personnel. This is another reason for the location of such companies in large cities.

Factories should be located close to water sources, since the food industry is very water intensive, and in some industries fresh water is the basis of production.

We have given the main factors influencing the location of such companies. In modern Russia, the food industry is quite well developed.

The Baltic company from Kaliningrad, which produces beer, exports its products to 47 countries (location factors - proximity to the consumer, large population, which is a source of labor and the availability of fresh water).

Fishing is developed in the vast territories of the Pacific coast (Vladivostok, Magadan, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, etc.). In this case, the main factor in the location of food industry enterprises is the proximity of raw materials.

Thus, the construction of food industry enterprises is due to the factors of their location. Knowing these factors is the key to a company's well-being.

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